Who invented the biometric system ?
The use of biometric technology, which utilizes body characteristics to identify a person, goes back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt and china. However, modern-day biometrics has evolved thanks to the contribution of several minds, Joao De Barros, a European explorer is credited with recording the first known system of fingerprinting in the 14th century. Alphonse Beritillon, a policeman from Paris, studied body smechanics in an effort to identify criminals. In recent years, John Daugman, a physicist, has done pioneering work in developing the biometric iris accuracy. Biometric systems are being used to help nab terrorists. Pakistan recently installed biometric systems at its border to keep a check on cross-border militancy from Afganistan.

What is photometry ?
Photometry is a Physics terms related to the visibility of an object through the eyes. It is the study of factors responsible for the sensation of brightness sensed by the eye. An object is visible when light coming from the object enters the eyes and creates the sensation responsible for vision. The brightness sensed by the eye depends on different factors. Photometry is the study of these factors and used to make a photometer which is usually used to compare intensities of two point sources.

Why is the heart, not any other organ, the focus of all love stories?
Faster or stronger (or even irregular) hear beats are the most evident physical sign of any emotion we experience, not of love alone. Looking into the brain requires sophisticated instrumentation. Hence the millennia – old belief of lay persons that the heart is the seat of all emotions.

What is the fifth state of matter ?
The fifth state of matters is the Bose-Einstein condensate. In 1920, Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose had done some calculations for the fifth state of matter. Albert Einstein predicted a new state of matter – the Bose – Einstein condensate (BEC). In 2001, Eric A Carnell, Wolfgang Ketterle and Carl E Williams of the US received the Nobel Prize in Physics for achieving the Bose- Einstein condensation which is formed by cooling a gas of extremely low density to super low temperatures.

When was the system of visas introduced ?
A visa (short for the Latin carta visa, meaning ‘the document having been seen’) is issued by a country giving an individual permission to formally request entrance to the country during a given period of time and for certain purposes. It is mostly stamped or glued inside a passport, or sometimes issued as separate pieces of paper. An early reference is found in the biblical book of Nehemiah, circa 450 B.C. Nehemiah, an official serving King Artaxerxes of ancient Persia, asked permission to travel to Judah. The king agreed and gave Nehemiaha letter ‘to the governors beyond the river’. As per the current format of passports, blank pages are given for foreign countries to affix visas, or stamp the passport on entrance or exit.

Who is the youngest Nobel prize recipient ?
The youngest person to receive a Nobel prize was Sir William Lawrence Bragg (Physics, 1915). Bragg and his father, Sir William Henry Bragg, won the award jointly for their work with X-ray spectra, X-ray diffraction and crystal structure.

Who has won more than one Nobel prize ?
Marie Curie won the Nobel prize in 1903 for Physics and 1911 in Chemistry; Linus Pauling in 1954 (for Chemistry) and 1962 (for Peace); John Bardeen in 1956 (for Physics) and 1972; frederick Sanger in Chemistry in 1958 and 1980. Apart from these individual prizes, the Peace prize has been awarded to the International Red Cross Committee thrice (1917, 1944 and 19630 and the United nations High Commission for refugees won it twice in 1954 and 1981.

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